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Two great kingdoms, Germany and Italy, began to lose their political unity almost as soon as they had acquired it; they had to wait until the 19th century before they found it again.The only force capable of providing a basis for social unity was the Roman Catholic Church.

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Supreme authority was wielded by the pope in the first of these areas and by the emperor in the second.The church, in turn, not only owned cities and armies but often attempted to regulate affairs of state.This tension would reach a breaking point in the late 11th and early 12th centuries during the clash between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over the question of lay investiture. The balance of economic power slowly began to shift from the region of the eastern Mediterranean to western Europe.Click on the boxes in the map key at upper right to see the expansion of Christianity and Islam and the separation between Western and Eastern Christianity in 1054.Dark Ages, Late Antiquity, or the Early Middle Ages.

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